Differential and single ended are two kinds of parallel SCSI technologies and refer to the physical signal circuitry used on the SCSI bus. Single ended SCSI was the original technology used and has shorted distances. Differential SCSI was invented to allow parallel SCSI to extend over longer distances.
They are incompatible, although you can buy converters that "bridge" single ended to differential.
There is another SCSI signaling technology called LVD SCSI for low voltage differential SCSI. It is the most recent development and is the technology used for the highest speed ultra SCSI technologies.
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This was first published in March 2002