Where can I go to learn the basic, but solid understanding of the difference in the file systems like NSS (Novel), NFS (UNIX), NTFS, etc. I want to understand block I/O Mode versus other modes. I need to know what will and will not work with NAS etc.
That's a very broad and complex question. There's hasn't been a definitive piece of work that compares file systems done by anyone that has the credibility to do so. I suggest reading about filesytems in general and then look as the SAN and NAS descriptions. For what will and will not work with NAS, you have to look at each specific application. In general, applications that do RAW I/O (the I/O bypasses the file system) will not work with NAS.
Here are a few references you might want to check out:
Here's a vendor-specific discussion on using NAS for databases:
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This was first published in November 2003